Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is a complex pathology that can have dangerous consequences for health.
In order to slow down its development and cope with dangerous symptoms, you need to consult a doctor in time. The specialist will make the correct diagnosis and select the appropriate treatment.
Clinical picture and classification of the pathology.
The pathology is progressive in nature and is accompanied by the destruction of the bones and cartilage of the hip joint. In medicine, this disorder is often called coxarthrosis. It is classified in ICD-10 under code M16.
Most often, pathology occurs in people over 40 years of age, and women are more susceptible to it.
In older people, the disease is associated with the natural aging of the body. In young people, the cause of the development of the disease can be traumatic injuries, excess weight, increased physical activity.
At the initial stage of the disease, there are periodic pains in the joint area. Without proper therapy, the disease progresses, which can lead to disability.
Causes and provoking factors.
The pathology has a gradual development and is associated with various factors. The following factors lead to the appearance of the disease:
- Hormonal imbalance: it can have an age or a pathological character.
- Violation of blood flow - occurs as a result of injuries, increased physical exertion, vascular pathologies.
- Inflammation: May be seen with arthritis.
- Excess weight - increased loads on the hip joint causes its compression and destruction.
- Genetic predisposition: Disorders in the structure of the femoral head often lead to osteoarthritis.
- Increased physical activity: rarely causes osteoarthritis, but can accelerate the onset of the disease with other adverse factors.
- Traumatic injuries: These include sprains, fractures, dislocations.
Stages and types of osteoarthritis.
There are several stages in the development of pathology:
- The first stage - at this stage, uncomfortable sensations periodically appear. The provoking factor is prolonged physical activity. After a short break, the discomfort disappears.
- The second stage - pain in the hip joint increases, affecting the groin and thigh. The discomfort also occurs at rest. After a long movement, the limp appears. At this stage, the function of the joint suffers, its motor activity decreases. Contractures develop gradually, strength and muscle mass decrease.
- The third stage - the pain syndrome is permanent and appears even at night. Walking without a cane is very difficult. Movements are disturbed and severely limited, there is hypotrophy of the muscles of the buttocks, thighs and lower leg. When moving, a person has to rely on the toes and lean to the damaged side.
- The fourth stage - at this stage, the hip joint completely loses motor activity.
Symptoms and manifestations
With the development of this type of arthrosis, the following manifestations occur:
- Severe pain in the area of the affected joint and knees. In addition, discomfort in the groin may occur. The pain is constantly present. With the aggravation of the disease, it affects the legs.
- Violation of motor activity. Excruciating pain syndrome disrupts a person's ability to move. In this situation, you have to use a cane or crutches.
- Shortening of the affected limb.
- A crack in the joint that appears with any movement.
- Stiffness of movements.
- Atrophy of muscle tissue in the thigh area is detected by X-ray.
Methods for diagnosing the hip joint
When making a diagnosis, the doctor takes into account the clinical manifestations of the pathology, the anamnesis, the results of an external examination of the patient, and instrumental studies.
To make an accurate diagnosis, conduct the following studies:
- Analysis of patient complaints and external examination of the damaged area.
- X-rays - with their help, it is possible to identify the size of the joint space, bone growths, etc.
- Ultrasound procedure.
- Blood test.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
If necessary, the inner surface of the joint is examined with arthroscopic instruments. Differential diagnosis is carried out to exclude gonarthrosis, lumbosacral or thoracic osteochondrosis. Pain in osteoarthritis can be disguised as clinical manifestations of radicular syndrome caused by nerve impingement or inflammation. Neurogenic pathology can usually be excluded with the help of a number of tests. Arthrosis of the hip joint is necessarily differentiated from trochanteric bursitis of the hip joint, Bechterew's disease, reactive arthritis. To exclude autoimmune pathologies, biochemical studies of blood and synovial fluid are performed.
To cope with arthrosis of the hip joint, it is necessary to choose a combination therapy.
General recommendations for daily routine and nutrition
At the initial stage of the pathology, the doctor advises making lifestyle adjustments. This will help stop the pain and stop the progression of the disease. At this stage, it is usually enough to correct the lifestyle and follow a special diet.
The doctor recommends the patient to perform special physical exercises. Equally important is the correctness of the diet. If you are overweight, you definitely need to lose weight. Increased stress on the joint will not allow to eliminate arthrosis.
The basis of the diet should be fish. You can also eat lean meats, legumes, green leafy vegetables, coarse bread. At the same time, it is recommended to abandon fried foods and fast food. You need to eat fractionally, in small portions.
Medical treatment is aimed at solving such problems:
- pain relief;
- normalization of tissue nutrition;
- stimulation of the regeneration process;
- improved blood flow;
- reduction of pressure on damaged areas;
- Enlargement of the joint space.
To solve these problems, you need to use the following categories of drugs:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These medications relieve pain and inflammation. However, they are not able to restore the affected cartilage.
- Chondroprotectors. They provide nutrients to the tissues and stop the destruction of the joints, which helps restore their functions.
- Muscle relaxants. With the help of such funds, it is possible to eliminate spasms of muscle tissues and normalize blood flow in the tissues.
- Creams and ointments. Such funds activate blood flow and eliminate spasms.
- Steroid hormones. These drugs are injected into the joint cavity. Thanks to this, it is possible to cope with the exacerbation of the disease and eliminate severe pain.
- Vasodilators. They contribute to the expansion of blood vessels in the joints and supply useful substances to the tissues.
Popular and alternative media
In addition to standard therapy, you can use the following tools:
- Tinctures and decoctions for internal use. The basis of such funds can be lemons, mummies, honey, medicinal plants.
- Ointments from natural ingredients. For its preparation, you can use eucalyptus oil, aloe, celandine.
- Baths and compresses. To curb the symptoms of osteoarthritis, compresses made from cabbage leaves and Jerusalem artichoke baths can be used.
At the stage of remission, physiotherapy is actively used:
- Shock Wave Therapy – In this case, the body is affected by sound waves that provide blood flow to the desired area. This improves the regeneration process of the dermis and stimulates metabolic processes.
- Myostimulation - helps restore the functioning of muscle tissue, which is weakened due to a forced decrease in motor activity.
- Phonophoresis - under the influence of a special device, a special drug in the form of an ointment or cream is injected into the affected area.
- Ozone therapy - reduces discomfort and activates cartilage development. This effect is achieved due to the influence of the ozone-oxygen composition.
With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, surgical procedures are prescribed:
- Puncture: is pumping excess fluid from the joint. Thanks to this, it is possible to stop the pain and normalize physical activity.
- Arthroscopic debridement - involves cleaning the inner articular surface of cartilage elements and washing the cavity with a special solution.
- Periarticular osteotomy - is an artificial fracture of the femur. After that, it is spliced at a different angle, which minimizes the load on the joint.
- Endoprosthesis: In this case, the entire joint is replaced with a prosthesis.
It is impossible to restore cartilage tissue in a joint damaged by arthrosis without prosthetic surgery, but with the correct approach to treatment, compliance with all medical prescriptions, maintaining the correct lifestyle, doing therapeutic exercises, regular massage courses, taking vitamins and proper nutrition. it can stop the process of damage and destruction of cartilage and hip joints.
A cane can be used to relieve stress on the hip joint. In some situations, a person is advised to use crutches.
Most often, people with this diagnosis are advised to wear a soft bandage. Wearing an orthosis helps reduce the load on the affected area, protects it from dislocations, and reduces physical activity.
In the most difficult situation, a person becomes disabled, completely loses his ability to work and is unable to lead an active lifestyle. This condition is very dangerous for the elderly. If you don't help a person, your life expectancy is significantly reduced.
Pathology has a favorable prognosis for life. In addition, the disease usually has a slow development. However, in some situations there is a risk of life-threatening aseptic necrosis of the femur.
Arthrosis of the hip joint is a serious pathology that can lead to a complete loss of motor activity. To avoid this, you should consult a doctor in a timely manner and strictly follow his recommendations.