Almost everyone is familiar with back pain., and 15-20% have to deal with this symptom regularly throughout the year.
The problem is not only of a medical nature, but also socioeconomic, since during the illness the patient, depending on the causes that originated the problem, loses his ability to work.
In most cases, it is possible to get rid of the disease in a month, after which the patient can resume normal life.
Despite these results, in 70% of patients the pain returns again, the treatment is useless due to the fact that the therapy was incorrect or inadequate.
It should be noted that the painis a sign of degenerative processes in the spine, which in turn are considered a sign of pathological conditions.
Classification and nature of back pain.
types of back pain:
- Not specific(benign) - dorsopathy, "outdated" osteochondrosis, the cause is most often dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, further examination is often useless;
- specificpain (dangerous) that requires additional diagnostics already at the first visit, which makes it possible to exclude the presence of a spinal fracture, tuberculosis, tumor, metastasis, etc. ;
- root pain(radiculopathy) - associated with nerve root irritation/compression from a herniated disc (fall).
What diseases of the musculoskeletal system cause pain in the spine in the middle of the back?
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system that cause pain.:
- osteoarthritis- the patient can bend over from pain, attempts to straighten the back, take deep breaths contribute to increasing negative sensations, by squeezing the vertebrae, the load on the shock-absorbing elastic pad increases, as a result, the damaged element becomes thinner;
- chondrosis, osteochondrosis of the thoracic region- develops against the background of obesity, physical inactivity, unbalanced nutrition, mineral metabolism disorders, in the process of age-related changes, the elasticity and height of the intervertebral discs decrease, their structure changes, the pinching of nerve fibers contributes to sudden, severe pain or moderate discomfort aggravated by movements;
- scoliosis, increased/decreased lordosis, kyphosis- lead to impaired posture and appearance, resulting in pinched nerves in the spine;
- abutment injury;
- neurological causes(radiculitis);
- congenital pathologies- extra / missing vertebrae in the spine lead to painful discomfort;
- myositis- weakening and increased pain develops against the background of inflammation of the skeletal muscles, discomfort increases with palpation of the back.
Other causes of back pain
- kidney inflammation- discomfort is often accompanied by high fever, swelling of the lower extremities, hypertension;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system, vascular pathologies, accompanied by throbbing back pain and increased blood pressure;
- chronic stress;
- Digestive system diseases- pain is localized in the middle or on the left side of the back, after eating the pain intensifies against the background of pancreatitis or diseases of the gastric mucosa;
- psychoemotional disorder.
Serious diseases of the organs located in the abdominal cavity and below the chest can also respond with pain in the spine. It is often very difficult for a patient to establish the nature of the pain, it is recommended to monitor the symptoms and inform the doctor in a timely manner.
Treatment of pain in the spine
Before starting treatment, the doctor must make a diagnosis, study the patient's history, listen to complaints, conduct a visual examination and palpation, study the results of laboratory and diagnostic studies. After that, the selection of the necessary drugs is carried out, the action of which is aimed at correcting the problem.
During an exacerbation, therapy is aimed at stopping the pain signal.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs- their action is aimed at stopping the mediators of inflammatory processes before they enter the tissues surrounding the spine. Helps to eliminate inflammation, fever, swelling, spasms and pain. In case of severe pain, injection preparations are prescribed, they are distinguished by their rapid effect (15-20 minutes), safety for the gastrointestinal tract, all components are administered in the initial dose. To get rid of moderate and mild pain, external preparations or drugs are prescribed in oral form.
- Analgesics- are prescribed when the analgesic properties of NSAIDs are not enough, the drugs affect the transmission of nerve impulses to the brain, preventing the appearance of a response. It is recommended that the combination of 2 groups be carried out carefully, the characteristics of the body, the compatibility of drugs should be taken into account, the selection of the dose is made individually.
- muscle relaxants- diseases of the spine are often accompanied by muscle spasms, forcing the patient to freeze in one position, all movements provoke sharp pains. The injection of muscle relaxants will help relax the muscle corset, the effect of their administration lasts 12 hours. Tablets are used less often, since they begin to work only after the accumulation of the required amount of the substance.
- Chondroprotectors- Problems with the spine appear against the background of degenerative processes in articular and cartilaginous tissues, in such cases drugs containing chondroitin or glucosamine are prescribed. Substances are the basis for the restoration of tendons, joints, ligaments, etc. These components are not produced in the body, therefore, during illness, the cells must be as saturated as possible with the listed substances, most often they are prescribed orally. drugs should be taken in long courses.
As complementary therapyvitamin complexes, diuretics, antispasmodics can be prescribed, as well as funds intended to improve trophism and restore blood circulation, antioxidants, antihistamines and others.
In the absence of the effect of drug treatment, surgical treatment is indicated, modern techniques can achieve great results.With osteochondrosis, injuries and hernias, part of the vertebra or intervertebral disc is removed, with aortic aneurysm, plasty is indicated.
In diseases of the spine, the cause of the origin of the pain must be established; quite often the source of unpleasant symptoms is the internal organs. Only a doctor can diagnose a disease and prescribe treatment.
Exercise, exercise therapy, massage.
If the patient's condition and the nature of the course of the underlying disease allow, moderate physical activity is necessary.
Doctors also recommend regular morning exercises, the complex includes the following exercises:
- boy pose. Sit on your knees with your head bowed to the floor, stretch your arms forward, stay in this position for 20 seconds, stretch your arms back also for 20 seconds, repeat the exercise twice.
- Head bending.Sit on the floor with a straight back, place your hands behind your head, slowly pull your head forward, tilt it until your chin touches your neck, hold for 10-15 seconds, repeat 8-10 times.
- Spins with a stick. Standing, place the gymnastics stick horizontally on the neck behind the head, straighten your arms and hold the ends of the stick. With a stick behind your head, slowly turn to the left, hold for 25-30 seconds, repeat in the opposite direction, the number of repetitions is 10-12 times.
- forward leaning of the body. With your legs shoulder-width apart and your arms crossed behind the lock, stand up, lean your body forward, slightly bend your legs at the knees, stay in this position for 15-20 seconds, repeat up to 4-5 times .
- Lean body forward with toes touching. Sitting on the floor, close your legs, bring them out in front of you, leaning forward to reach your toes with your hands. The exercise should be performed without sudden movements, gradually, slowly, holding the position for several seconds.
During exacerbations, exercise therapy and other types of physical activity are strictly contraindicated.
Manual massage also shows effectiveness in back pain caused by diseases of the spine.. Techniques allow you to achieve muscle relaxation, during their implementation, soft tissues are heated, which helps to improve blood circulation. Such a massage is recommended for patients with pathologies of the respiratory organs, accompanied by sputum secretion.
Treatment at home or folk remedies.
In the presence of persistent back pain, it is recommended to resort to folk recipes, before using them, you should consult a doctor. Despite the apparent safety, many media can be not only useless, but also harmful.
Recommended for pain relief.prepare a dressing. To do this, you need to take a mixture of pure alcohol or cologne, a small amount of hot pepper, valerian root tincture, a bottle of 5% iodine solution, thoroughly rub the affected area with the mixture and wrap it. It is recommended to carry out the procedure in the evening, leave it warm until morning. It is very important not to start the disease, to identify the cause of the pathology in a timely manner and to follow all the recommendations of doctors.
The following steps can help alleviate the condition at home.:
- avoid prolonged stay in bed: physically active patients suffer less pain;
- play light sports: moderate physical activity is better;
- maintain correct posture;
- increase the flexibility of the spine;
- wear corsets and spinal belts;
- apply heat and cold to the affected area;
- stop smoking - nicotine causes spasm in small vessels, which leads to disruption of microcirculation and cessation of oxygen supply to tissues;
- relaxation exercises
The patient can prevent the development of back diseases on his own, he must learn to sleep, sit and stand correctly, as well as withstand heavy loads with minimal harm to himself. It is recommended to stand and sit with a straight back, the head should not hang forward, the body should not bend or bend without leaning on the hands.
If you need to stand for a long time, you need to find a point to support your head and limbs, you can lean on a cabinet, wall and other surfaces. Walking in heels for more than 2 hours at a time is excluded, the legs should be periodically rested, for this they should be raised for a couple of minutes.
- unload the neck and lower back with special rollers or "bone" pillows, avoid sitting on stools or with a hunched back, every 15 minutes. you need to change your posture, stretch and lean back, after every hour of sitting you need to take breaks;
- you need to sleep on hard mattresses without high pillows, you can put orthopedic rollers under your head;
- when carrying loads, certain rules must be observed, loads of more than 3 kg for women and more than 5 kg for men should not be carried, it is dangerous to lift weights while bending or jerking, bags should be lifted with a straight back, heavy loads must be transported in several steps.
- Back pain- a relatively common pathology, with the appearance of a pain syndrome, you need to seek medical help.
- The causes of pathology are very different., the doctor makes a diagnosis based on the anamnesis, examinations, patient complaints.
- during treatmentdrugs are used(mainly painkillers), it is recommended to perform massage, exercise therapy.